Artistic Nudes

Creating artistic nude pictures  is a very difficult genre of photography . Its fragile ,sensitive and full of traps.  Within a split second the picture could toggle from an artistic nude into an ordinary sex shot only suitable for those glossy magazines.   And, that is not the intend of artistic nude.

CF010148-Edit-Edit-Edit-2-Edit In my opinion, they should have class,  be stylish , clean and acceptable. You don’t want to show the erotic zones, and yet you want to leave an illusion to the viewer. So that he or she sees what is not there.

CF010167-Edit-Edit-2You want to show the beauty of the human body in all its glory.  The body curves , it does not have to be a top model. Because, all of us have nice body shapes. Probably one more then the other, but it is the photographers task to bring out the very best of the model. Look for the best body area’s and emphasise those area’s.

CF010182-Edit-Edit-Edit-Edit-EditThe light is your best friend,  and probably the most imported aspect in Aristic Nude photography.  My motto is ” play the light ” .  You have to make sure that the light is right . Use the light to illuminate the right places . So that you get an interaction between highlights and shadows.  The play of highlights and shadows  are critical.  The lack thereof  always results in a picture that is dull and flat with the appearance of an ordinary nude shot.  That is not what you want to create, you want mood, beauty and appeal , all within a well balanced composition and a play of body shapes, light and shadows.

Composition is a common trap, often its enough to have an arm or leg in the wrong position and the shot defaults to an ordinary sex shot for some glossy magazine.   Again , that is not what you want as an artistic nude.

CF010162-Edit-Edit-EditNude photography is artwork, glorifying the human body.   Special light effects are a great aid to set the mood , don’t be afraid to experiment.  It will take time and many shots before you get it right, but eventually you will.   Try differed angles, different model poses, move the light and use the pilot light before shooting. See what the light does, up-close, far away .  Block some of the light with cardboard or other blinding materials so you only have a split of light. Move that beam of light to the right area’s until you get that magic look.

CF010178-Edit-Edit-2-EditAs I stated before, light is your best ally , use it to its best to create depth and volume in the picture. Don’t be afraid to use special effects.    I tend to use low key for artistic nude’s , however you can also use high key.  That is entirely up to you .

But whatever you do, do not fall into sleecy  pornographic shots.

Remember , you do not need to have the model in full in the shot.  Specific selected body area’s or parts work just fine .    The same applies to the light. You don’t need to light the model in full,  I believe that its much better just to highlight certain area’s . To me that creates the right mood  ( of course that is for low key shots.)

The human body is so beautiful ,  it is our task as photographers to portray it and glorify it as a tribute to nature.

Thanks for reading,

Walnut Oil, the old way

Pressed at 100 Bar


In France the production of artisanal walnut oil continues to exist despite the legislation, health and safety regulations and bureaucracy imposed by the European Union. For centuries walnut oil was produced in oil mills, driven by horses, in iron tubs, heated by wood burners and stirred with wooden spoons, filtered with an old cloth ….


In the small town De Saint Cere, rue Croix de Lagarde Nr 55, that tradition is kept alive by two dedicated oil producers, Marcel and Charles. They operate the walnut mill as it was done 100 years ago… and yes you can witness it all from close by. A heaven for those who love old machinery, build in the mid 1800’s installed and operational ever since.


The horse is replaced with a 4PK 400Volts AC tri-Phase central motor which drives the complete mill through a system of flat belts , wheels and pulleys ; a truley amazing technique.

It all starts with 14 Kg of walnuts, removed from their shell. Decanted into a steel riveted tub.



A 600Kg heavy granite stone rolls over the walnuts, rotating on the X and Y-axis… endless circulating and crunching the walnuts for about twenty minutes.   It completes with a yellowish paste, with no trace of oil so far.




The walnut paste is scraped into a bucket, every little bit counts and nothing is left to waist even the smallest amount of walnut paste is brushed into the bucket with a twig based brush .   Talking about tradition….



Meanwhile, a 1 meter wide steel pan is heated-up , nowadays by a gas burner. So far that is the only modernization, as initially that was heated with wood. The walnut paste is poured into the pan, within a few seconds the air is filled with the pleasant smell of walnuts.



Heating continues until the paste reaches a temperature of 86 degrees centigrade, while been stirred continuously.



The end is near once the paste discolors and turns greyish.   By now the temperature is about 100 degree’s. The exact temperature and time determines the final flavor of the walnut oil and is the secret of Marcel and Charles.



The press is a cast iron fixture, driven by water pressure. At the time hydraulic presses did not exist and a ingenious engineered water pomp was used to drive the press. A small concentric axel drives a piston pushing water into the water-based press. The dual steel ball return-valve prevents the pressurized water to revert.



The press is fitted with a piece of cloth used as a filter and   several metal plate inserts to channel the pressed walnut oil .



The warm walnut paste is decanted into the press, and pressurization can start. Slowly the pressure builds up, at about 50Kg/cm the first drips of oil appear at the lip.



While pressure builds up, more oil erupts filling the metal bucket.




Time for a taste, yes I know its a bit cheap with a plastic spoon. Never the less, Martine experienced an explosion of walnut flavor gently stroking mouth and tongue… as she stated, “ I never tasted such a delicious and voluminous rich flavor “.



At 100Kg/cm, the walnut past reaches its oil release peak , slowly shrinking until the flow stops.


By now seven liters of golden brown walnut oil fills the bucket ready for consumption. As throughout the whole process, nothing is wasted and even the smallest amount of oil is recovered out of the press gutters with a sponge.


The press is depressurized, the piston retracts and the residue walnut paste is knocked out with a hammer as it formed a heavy and dense substance under the heavy pressure.



Remember that 100Kg/cm pressure was placed per square centimeter. The press piston is about 40 cm in diameter, producing easily 1.256 Ton of pressure.



The residue is used for animal food and some new wave cooking gurus call it walnut flour used in bakery.



If you are ever in France, try to visit Marcel and Charles.



Thanks for reading, Steve



Pictures and animals , not as easy as it looks.

Shooting pictures with animals is not as easy as it looks.

cf009241Recently I was asked to make pictures of a Pet Clinic. At a first glance, an easy job; taking interior shots with a dog here and there and its done.


Reality is something else. When I met the Veterinarians, it was obvious that they had no idea on what was to be portrait. So we started to talk , and defined what was possibile.

The pictures had to be animal friendly, showing the openness, good care and professionalism of their bussines . Covering the operations quarter, medical check-up, nursing facility, waiting room and so on.


I visited the Pet Clinic and explored the possibilities, learning what a Vet does and tried to picturize their job and how I could convey the message into pictures.

Selecting dog actors

I needed animal actors with the right doses of coddling . So, why not a dog, cat and a few kids. That always works.


It’s fundamental that the dog is calm, relaxed, controlled, obedient, well behaved, sweet and lovely. After all, the dog will act as the patient and be placed on the examination table, the X-ray scan, aspiration apparatus and so on. A lot to ask for, especially since most dogs do not like a Vet or the Pet Clinic just like a child  doesn’t like the dentist.


Selecting the right breed is crucial, considering the strange environment, the people and kids that will be part of the shoot.

There are many breeds, all lovely and gentle if raised properly. Yet the public opinion has characterised or should I say stigmatized certain breeds as dangerous. Despite the fact that this is only a perception. It needs to be considered as it will set the public opinion.


Hence the selection of the right breed is essential for a successful shoot. The choice fell on a Border collie.

The Border collie is an intelligent dog  widely considered to be the most intelligent. Although the primary role of the Border collie is to herd livestock, they are becoming increasingly popular as a companion animal. They are playful, and energetic eminently trainable.



I invited a Border Collie owner  for a meet and greet, and see how the dog reacts to kids, people and camera /flash gear. And most of all if the dog has the stigma and character to act. Good control over the dog is essential (by the owner). Border Collies tend to be very agile, and because of that behaviour it didn’t work out with the first selected dog.


With the next Border Collie things were very different, the meet and greet session was a pleasure and we decided to visit the Pet Clinic.

A time and place for the dog to explore and get used to. Remember that some dogs just freak out at the Vet’s place. If they do, then you need to look for another dog despite the fact that all else was great.   It’s always good practice to take two or more dogs with you , belonging to the same owner and part of the same group. It creates an at-ease feeling for the dog who will act in the shoot.

The day of the shoot;

Invite all the dogs and people way ahead of the actual shooting time (at least 1 hour). Make sure that the dog owner exercised the dog before the shoot so that they have drained some of their energy.


Let the dog and people socialize to the Pet Clinic and each other . Let the dog run around and have all participants to meet the dog. Show the dog the camera, let them smell at it and see how they react to flash light.   Do this in a playful manner and let the dog owner drive the meet event as he or she knows what the dog likes and what not.


After the play and meet time elapsed, start with all the participants the rehearsal of the different scene’s. Including placing the dog in the different positions. Explain to the owner what you expect from the dog and let the owner position the dog.

Obviously the people that will be part of the scene will need to participate, and especially when the dog owner steps out of the scene.

Talk to the dog owner where he should stand and what kind of attention you want from the dog. For instance if the dog lays on the operation table, you don’t want the dog to look up. So ask the trainer to sit low. So that the dog will look down.

Once the different scenes have been exercised the real work will start.


Start with one scene, be calm and relaxed as dogs will react to your own behavior. If you as a photographer are afraid of dogs, then don’t do a shoot like this as it will not work.

Place your lights (flash units) in the scene, adjust the light. Place the camera on a tripod and focus where you want to have the focus. Yes, I know nobody is in the scene yet. Focus on where things will be. Lock the focus and take a shot, check the histogram and framing, if all is good, get on with the next step.


Place the people into position, have them to take a pose the way you need it to be. Tell them to hold that position. At the last moment let the dog owner place the dog in the scene and wait for the right moment.

Don’t wait too long as the dog will not be that patient. If need be, start all-over again and give the dog a break.   Don’t get nervous as it will rub off onthe dog and that will be the end of the shoot.


Take your time and work through the scenes.


Making pictures with animals is very rewarding and joy-full as long as you have patience, lots of patience and love animals.   If you have no patience nor love for animals, then don’t shoot this kind of pictures as it is not going to work.

Thanks for reading

Lake Powell and the Hanging Gardens

_dsc4912After having driven hundreds of kilometers along the unforgiving desert, we took the last hill. In front of us , Lake Powell a vast artificial lake. Blue as the sky. A lake in the middle of the desert dug in a sea of red rock. It’s Breathtaking, beautiful and mystic.

Lake Powell was built to store water from the Colorado River and is one of the top tourist destinations in the Southwest. With approximately 3200Km coastline and a vast choice of water sports.


Carl Hayden Dam

A visit to the Carl Hayden Dam is worth the time, with the visitor center right next to the giant Dam. The Dam blocks the water from Lake Powell  from entering the Grand Canyon.

The Carl Hayden Visitor Center is located on the west end of the dam, approximately 110 feet above its crest.


This beautiful, modernistic building whose circular, glass-enclosed east end juts out over the dam, provides a sweeping panoramic view of the dam and Lake Powell behind it.

And, in this day and age of high energy costs and government waste, the Carl Hayden Visitor Center is actually a great example of energy efficiency as a result of retrofits made in 1994 and 1995. There are wonderful exhibits, photographs, dioramas and a beautiful relief map of the dam, Lake Powell and the surrounding area.


The initial blast took place on October 15, 1956 to the last bucket of cement poured in 1963.

Descending 110 feet takes you to the crest of the dam , a magnificent view over the Colorado River 500 feet below.  Descending another 528 feet takes you to an unusual sight: 86,000 square feet of grass that lies between the dam and the power plant. The grass provides a cooling effect, much the same as an evaporative cooler, which aids in reducing temperatures inside the powerhouse.


And, for the piece de resistance, you will have a spectacular close up of the eight hydroelectric generators, which generate an average of 451 megawatts of electricity and have a maximum capacity of 1320 megawatts. By the way those are build in our country (Belgium).

_dsc4900Personally, we enjoy more nature. Next to the Dam there is the trail of the hanging gardens. One you should not miss, and if possible attend a guided tour provided (free) by the Park Rangers at sunset.

Glen Canyon

The Glen Canyon National Recreation Area preserves and protects 1.2 million acres of the Colorado Plateau, a vast landscape of colorful buttes, mesas, canyons, and cliffs. Arid to semi-arid, the region supports a complex and often fragile ecosystem. Plants and wildlife have developed unique adaptations to the hot, arid conditions of their environment and contribute to the rich diversity of life in the area.


The wildlife of the Colorado Plateau desert have developed unique adaptations to the arid conditions of their environment and are a part of the rich diversity of life in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area . Wildlife in Glen Canyon is a reflection of the Colorado Plateau, changes in land use, and changes in the environment caused by the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963 and subsequent filling of Lake Powell. In addition to playing vital roles in the desert ecosystem and animal communities, wildlife also provides recreational opportunities such as bird watching and fishing.

The Hanging Garden in Ribbon Canyon

A magnificent 8 miles walk takes you through the red rocks and a bit of climbing to the Hanging Garden of the Ribbon Canyon. We took the hike at sunset, guided by a Park Ranger. The golden sunlight on the red rocks creates a feeling of tranquility and peace, as we have never seen before.


Water sources in the desert are rare. When present, it hosts lush and green vegetation, creating a stark contrast to the dry surrounding desert landscape. Perhaps the most unusual form of spring-supported plant community on the Colorado Plateau is the hanging garden.


Hanging gardens are spring-fed colonies of plants clinging to the vertical wall of a cliff. They often form in alcoves or “glens” where conditions are cooler and moister than in the surrounding desert.

The water is derived from winter precipitation. This water supply moves downward through the porous stone and cracks. When the water reaches a less permeable layer of rock, it cannot move downward any longer and begins to flow sideways. If this lateral movement continues to the wall of a canyon, it begins to seep out of the stone and flow down the sides of the cliff. This water source allows a rich array of plants to grow directly on the cliff face and on the ground below the seep.


The name “hanging gardens” is refers to the famous hanging gardens of Babylon, where artificial gardens were built high up on walls and roof tops. Hanging gardens support an amazing diversity of water loving plant species, such as ferns, lilies, sedges, and orchids.

Hanging gardens are very fragile and must be enjoyed with care. Foot traffic from humans and livestock will erode the soil and trample the delicate vegetation in these distinctive oases of the desert, causing erosion, and increasing risk of introduction of exotic plant species.

The landscape

Environmental processes such as climate change, fire regime, weather, and geological processes that shaped the Colorado Plateau are recorded in rock formations. Which are the storytellers of the region’s history.


Canyons carved out by the Colorado River and its tributaries expose rock layers deposited on top of each other over time; the youngest rocks at the top and the oldest at the bottom. These rock layers reveal fossils and traces of past life forms, principally from the Mesozoic Era, 248 to 65 million years ago.


Fossils preserved in the rocks of Glen Canyon are evidence of the life and changes that occurred during the Mesozoic Era and add to our understanding of biodiversity and evolutionary history.


Thanks for reading , Steve & Martine


The Phase One, XF camera with Single Focus point is old fashioned – Busted

xfRecently Phase One released a brand new Phase One Camera, the XF. It replaces the DF-645 and DF-645 + , which were actually Mamiya camera’s.  The XF is engineered and build from the ground up and has many features, but most of all a newly developed focusing system based on a 1Mpixel focus sensor (Honeybee) .

See my video on this here:

Immediate after the release of the new camera critics were received on the Focusing System. Many were expecting multiple focus points, like on standard DSLR’s. Much to their dislikes, the XF has a single central focus point.

honeybeeI can’t say that I agree with the critics, as I have been using the new XF and before the 645df+ body. Both have a single focus point, located in the center of the lens.   So, allow me to put down some words in defense of Phase One.

There are several reasons why it is engineered the way it is, and like anything else it is a well considered balance between features and quality.

Focus must be fast, accurate and reliable.

All Mirror Reflex camera’s (DSLR’s and Phase One) focus either through phase or contrast method.   It is measured on a special CCD (focus CCD) and mounted inside the camera body along the normal mirror down light path. After all light travels through the lens, hits the mirror, reflects in the prism and hits the eye on the viewfinder.

The Focus CCD provides the needed details on contrast to a compute engine which than drives the servomotor in the lens to increase or decrease the focal length. After each small step, the contrast is checked again. Until full focus is achieved.

multiThose DSLR’s with multiple selectable focus points (Nikon, Canon etc…) use only a part of the focus sensor.   The focus sensor is partitioned and each partition matches to the selected focus area on the viewfinder. Hence only a sub set of the pixels (focus sensor) are used to track and hunt the focus.

A Phase One camera (single focus point) uses the full 1 Mpixel focus CCD to calculate and acquire focus. It makes it far more precise and accurate then any DSLR.

Furthermore, the Phase One XF uses a central focus point. This delivers the best and sharpest focus, as optical lenses are at best at their midpoint.


There is an usage disadvantage of having only a single center focus point , however that is by far outweighed by the superior focus .

Shooting with a single central focus point results in centric pictures. Not at all pleasing to look at, as we all appreciate the golden cut or 2/3 rules. Of course you could focus on the eyes of a model, and then lock the focus and reframe to a 2/3 kind of arrangement. That works well in most cases, however one can lose the focus especially with 1.4 or 2.8 lenses as they have a very shallow DOF.

With a multipoint focus system like the DSLR, it is easier to selected a single focus point at 2/3 of the picture frame and place it on the eye of the model.   However the focus will not be that accurate as you are off-center and only a fraction of the Focus Sensor is used.

Never the less, the Phase One single focus point performs far better, and if you can’t get the swing of reframing without loosing the focus then shoot center stage. There is plenty of image pixel real-estate to crop in post processing (50,60, 80 and 100 Mpx image sensors).

xf-100mp-camera-system-two-screen-web-croppedThe bottom line is, the Phase One XF central single focus point uses the full focusing sensor resulting in accurate and very fine adjustments , combined with the best optical performance of the lens ( center).

In the future, we might expect live-view methods. Whereby we will be able to tap on any area on the viewer display to acquire focus. That will be possible without the mirror box and Focus sensor.   The image sensor will be used for both the Image Capture and Focus Sensing. Note that Phase One already has an electronic shutter capability.


Thanks for reading.


Mid Format camera’s, snobisme or real value.

Mid Format  (MF) camera’s, snobisme or real value.

There are many articles on the internet that compair the Mid Format camera’s such as Phase One and Hasselblad versus the DSLR’s of Canon and Nikon.   However comparison means nothing, it all depends on what your specific needs are and that is for me the bottom line.

_dsc7748-1Many DSLR shooters enviy those that shoot with Mid Format Camera’s . They will not admit it, and will turn their head when asked accompanied with a snear as it is snobisme. True a Mid format camera is very expensive and five times the price of the top high end Nikon or Canon DSLR.

I have been , and still am a DSLR shooter. But I am also a Mid Format camera owner . Both have their place in my work.

We can discuss the pro and cons  of both systems, and finally wonder if the extreme high cost of the MF  camera warrants the quality difference.  I believe that professional work with high quality demands can only be achieved with the MF camera. Especially when details, color and the overal feel of the final picture are critical.


However , for what I believe there will be a zillion disblievers.   So lets put all this asside and look at just a few facts of a MF camera.Don’t wurry , I am not going to make comparisons. I will just state why it works for me.

Why Medium Format?

  • Bigger is simply better. The unique look along with the unparalleled depth and detail are just some of what makes medium format stand out.
  • Full Frame DSLR’s , Medium Format and Large format all have their own specific characteristics embedded and constrained in the design of the device.
  • The technical characteristics of the optics and sensor size of a MF camera are the enablers for the resulting images. It creates a feel and look . That sets the results apart from the ordinary and creates a mood that draws you in, engrossing the viewer in rich detail and enthralling perspectives.

Depth and Detail, Bits and F stops.

  • Medium Format technology strives for Image Quality perfection.  Sensors that provide unparalleled true 16 bit color depth , whereas a top notch DSLR have 14 bit .
  • MF camera’s have an unmatched dynamic range of 15 stops. All the result op the pure surface dimension of the sensor and pixel density. Real estate that technically cannot be matches or achieved on a Full Frame Sensor.

Bigger is better.

  • High resolution is only a small part of the advantages having a sensor 2.5 times larger than the ones found in high-end DSLRs.
  • It delivers advantages in depth of field over more compact system as well as quality advantages when it comes to the scale of your final image output.

medium_format_vs_dslr_sensorLens range quality and leaf shutter.

  • Building on decades of experience in high-resolution optics and Leaf Shutter lenses delivers some of the sharpest results of the highest quality.
  • With better optical accuracy and performance than smaller systems, Medium Format optics paired with Medium format sensors is as close to perfect as anyone can get.


Sticking out in the crowd.

I know, this smells like snobbism. But it is not, it is simple business.

Going out on a shoot with a top notch DSLR  and having  to listen to the comments made by the customer that he or she has the same camera as you is not all that uncommon.  Not a very pleasant situation, although the ownership of a camera does not say anything of the use and skill set of the photographer.  Never the less it kind of marks your business.

It’s a bit like a taxi driver, one drives a volkswagen and the other a BMW seven series….  it just attracks another type of customers.


Thanks for reading.

Kapitalisme , de grondslag van de industrialisatie.

Industrialisatie van het verleden.

De industrie verdringt definitief de landbouw als voornaamste activiteit.  De loonslaven hebben zich inmiddels leren verengingen en hun acties krijgen eindelijk resultaat. Het algemeen meervoudig stemrecht en de eerste sociale wetten ontstaan. De levenstandaard stijgt drastisch, huisvesting en hygiëne worden beter. Dit is echter niet alleen het gevolg van de acties van de arbeiders , maar vooral van de enorme opbloei van het kapitalisme.

De kerk verliest haar greep op de ontkerstende arbeiders en de pendelarbeid brengt zelfs de nieuwe ideeën naar de dorpen. De katholieke onderneemt een poging om een deel van de arbeiders uit socialistische handen te houden.

De verzuiling is compleet 


Kapitalisme , de grondslag van de industrialisatie.

Zonder twijfel was het kapitalisme de grondslag van de definitieve doorbraak van de industrialisatie . De nijverheid kreeg het overwicht op de landbouw, en binnen de industriële sector kreeg de machine fabricage de overhand op de ambachtelijke sector. Het ritme en de intensiteit waarmee die evolutie zijn beslag kreeg verschilde van streek tot streek.


Wallonië het bolwerk van de Industrialisatie

Steenkooladers werden vooral aangetroffen in de provincie Henegouwen, in het westen de “ Borinage”  of “couchant de Mons” . Charleroi in het Oosten en tussen beide in “Le Centre “ Luik.

De metallurgie en koolindustrie vierde hoogtij. Mechanisatie was niet te stoppen en in 1842 waren er 317 stoommachines in gebruik in Wallonië . Een absolute toonbeeld van industriële vooruitgang . Vooral Seraing groeide uit zijn voegen, gelegen op een zeer smalle strook langsheen de rivier de Maas was bezaaid met hoge industriële schoorstenen . De uitlaatpijp van de metallurgie.


Boortorens en terrils van steenkoolmijnen verschenen in het landschap. Deze industriële ontwikkeling werd verder aangewakkerd door de opmars van de spoorwegen. Jaarlijks kwamen er tientallen kilometers spoor bij, en het wagen en locomotief park werd jaarlijks met vele eenheden vergroot.

De metaalnijverheid en de steenkool productie draaiden op volle toeren. De fabrieksarbeider en mijnarbeider verdrongen stormenderhand de ambachtsman en landbouwer.

De productie bleef stijgen, rijke industriëlen zwermden met hun kapitaal en hun `knowhow` de wereld uit. Hoogstnodig want men zag de bui reeds hangen. Gaande weg stelde men vast dat de productie van de steenkool verzwakte en dat het ijzererts zo goed als uitgeput raakte.   De industrie werd afhankelijk voor de grondstoffenbevoorrading van het buitenland.


Het beschikbaar worden van elektriciteit bracht nieuwe mogelijkheden en de chemische en de eremetaal industrie nam gestalte.

Een uitputtingsslag voor de arbeider

Het aantal werkuren lag hoog, het was niet ongewoon dat een arbeider uit de metaal sector s ‘morgens om 6 begon en de dag eindigde om 19.30Hr. Dagen van 12 werkuren en meer. De kompels in de koolmijnen werkten 10 tot 11 uur en de textiel arbeider 13 to 14 uur per dag.

Twaalf en meer uren per dag werkte de arbeider in ongezonde, tochtige gevaarlijke gebouwen, verpest door rook of allerlei uitwasemingen van teer en lood of chemische preparaten. Of hij werkte in de mijn. De mijn waar je eens beneden, nooit zeker bent ooit het daglicht terug te zien. Zoals de mijn van Marcasse in de Borinage.

 De mijn van Marcasse in de Borinage

Toen een van de oudste mijnen in de streek. Vele kompels vonden er de dood bij het afdalen door, mijngas en ontploffingen, het invallen van mijngangen . De mijnwerkers zijn er vermagerd en verbleekt door de koorts, zien er vermoeid en uitgemergeld uit , verweerd en vroegtijdig verouderd, de vrouwen vaal en verlept.

Rondom de mijn , armoedige mijnwerkerswoningen, met een paar dode bomen, zwart gerookt en grijs, afval en ashopen, bergen onbruikbare steenkool   enz.


Verlaten mijngangen, uitgeput en achtergelaten. In de nog in gebruik zijnde mijngangen werken de kompels in cellen, anderen laden de kleine karren, die op rails als van een tram vervoerd worden. Kinderen duwen en laden de kleine karren. Jongens en meisjes, er wordt geen onderscheidt gemaakt. De zondag was de enige rustdag, dan kon het gewroet en labeur in de fabriek even worden vergeten. Maar veel tijd om te nietsen is er niet.

Voor al dit labeur verdiende de arbeider een hongerloon. Het laat hen nauwelijks toe het allernoodzakelijkste voedsel te kopen. Om het gezinsbudget aan te vullen moeten vrouw en kinderen mee de mijn in: evenveel uren in dezelfde miserabele omstandigheden en voor nog minder loon.

In 1869 werken er nog 3000 kinderen beneden de 12 jaar in de Belgische mijnen, pas vanaf 1886 daalt het aantal kinderen in de mijnen.

Een toenemend aantal arbeiders werkte in deze mastodont-bedrijven. Hun leven dat vroeger door de seizoenen werd geregeld, wordt nu door de machine bepaald. Bovendien was de vrijheid van de arbeider in sterke mate beknot door een aantal rechtsregels die de almacht binnen het bedrijf in de handen van de patroon legt.


 Tijden zijn veranderd, spijtig genoeg is het equilibrium van Patroon en Werknemer nog steeds niet in balans door invloeden van vakbonden en zuilen.

Bedankt voor het lezen.